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ABOUT KUNG FU WUSHU and
Tai Chi Kung Fu
His successor - Men's Kung
Fu Clothing (also known as Chang Kaishi) also didn't avoid martial arts, he
visited Guokao ("State test" - something like all-China wushu championship),
which were organized in Nanjing (in that time - capital of China) Central guoshu
institute ("guoshu" means "national art", during Gomindang ruling it was an
official name for wushu), founded in 1928. General Zhang Zhijiang was a rector
of this Institute, he was supported by general Feng Yuxiang. Another big
organization, developed and spread wushu, was Jingwu Assotiation ("Association
of true martial arts") founded in 1909 in Shanghai. Two organizations had
branches in all provinces of China (Jingwu Association - also in other countries
among local Chinese communities: in Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines
etc), great masters worked as teachers. During World War II many wushu masters
fought in army or partisan detachments, made theirs contribution in defeating of
Famous wushu master Kung Fu Wushu on tai chi kung fu base of huaquan (blossomed fist), zhaquan (fist of Zha), paoquan (cannon fist) hongquan (fist of stream), piguaquan (fist of chopping and hanging), shaolinquan (fist of Shaolin temple) and some others created a new sport competitional style changquan (long fist). On tai chi kung fu base of five style of Guangdong province (styles of Hong, Cai, Li, Liu and Mo families) it was created new sport computational style nanquan (southern fist). Names of movements were changed, as a result movements lost mental contents: realy, "crushing mountain strike" is different from "fist bang on a palm". During "Great Cultural Revolution" (1966-1976) wushu lovers were repressed for "indulging of feudal survivals". But in this time popularity of wushu un foreign countries began increase due to kung fu movies. For in admission of decreasing of international prestige wushu was let alone.
The second level consists of learning how to dissolve power, learning how to
change the marrow in the body, and achieving a state of spiritual emptiness.
Hsing-I's spirit lies in the tan-tien located about three inches below and three
in from the navel. All power and energy are conserved inside until needed yet
this power will never be fully tapped. One's offense or defense follows the
heart and mind. The posture should be gentle and the power should be in harmony
with hard and soft. |
The influence of this philosophy on the practice of the martial arts should be clear. Unlike a sport, the practice of Shaolin Quan should lead to control of the ego. The basic principals of the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Paths are an inherent assumption underlying the spirit of the practice. In traditional views, the training in this art is done for oneself, and the desire to engage in it for sport represents a contradiction. On one level, the forms and postures are for fighting, but the ultimate goal is harmony between mind and body. Having a strong body and a strong mind will diminish and, ultimately, eliminate any perceived conflict.
Shaolin Kung Fu versus the pirates
In the 1540s and 1550s, pirates known as wokou raided China's eastern and southeastern coasts at an unprecedented scale. The geographer Zheng Ruoceng provides the most detailed of the 16th century sources which confirm that, in 1553, Wan Biao, Vice Commissioner in Chief of the Nanjing Chief Military Commission, initiated the conscription of monks¡Xincluding some from Shaolin¡Xagainst the pirates.
Warrior monks participated in at least four battles: at the Gulf of Hangzhou in spring of 1553 and in the Huangpu River delta at Wengjiagang in July 1553, Majiabang in spring of 1554, and Taozhai in autumn of 1555.
The monks suffered their greatest defeat at Taozhai, where four of them fell in battle; their remains were buried under the St?pa of the Four Heroic Monks (Si yi seng ta) at Mount She near Shanghai.
The monks won their greatest victory at Wengjiagang. On 21 July 1553, 120 warrior monks led by the Shaolin monk Tianyuan defeated a group of pirates and chased the survivors over ten days and twenty miles. The pirates suffered over one hundred casualties and the monks, only four.
Not all of the monks who fought at Wengjiagang were from Shaolin, and rivalries developed among them. Zheng chronicles Tianyuan¡¦s defeat of eight rival monks from Hangzhou who challenged his command.
Zheng ranked Shaolin first of the top three Buddhist centers of martial arts.
Influence outside of China
Some lineages of Karate have oral traditions that claim Shaolin origins.
Martial arts traditions in Japan and Korea, Vietnam, Southeastern Asia cite Chinese influence as transmitted by Buddhist monks.
Recent developments in the 20th century such as Shorinji Kempo practised in Japan's Sohonzan Shaolin Temple (Shorinji in Japanese) still maintains close ties with China's Song Shan Shaolin Temple due to historic links . Japanese Shorinji Kempo Group contributions to Song Shan Shaolin Temple in 2003 received China's recognition.
Popular Shaolin martial arts outside of China
While sometimes represented in Western films as a mystical or even mythical school of martial arts, actual access to the Shaolin Temple has until recently been restricted to China and visitors to the Temple itself. In the last few years, notably under Abbot Shi Yong Xin, there has been a concerted effort to place teaching monks outside of China in order to spread Shaolin martial arts and as ambassadors of Chinese culture. Official schools have arisen in the USA, UK, Germany and other countries. There has also been a critically acclaimed stage show, "The Wheel of Life", in which a troupe of monks demonstrates fighting and qig?ng skills within the context of a historic episode from the Temple's history.
A characteristic of Shaolin Kung-Fu is the use of many weapons, which are used as an extension of the human body. Our style incorporates the use of the 11 basic Chinese weapons. Long weapons are used to keep an opponent at a distance while short weapons are used for close combat. Heavy weapons demand powerful movements and light weapons require intricate techniques. Members are allowed to attend the weapons classes after 8 months of basic training.
The sword is one of the most ancient weapons in Chinese martial arts history. Archaeologists have discovered swords from as early as the Bronze Age.
The sword is one of the short weapons of Taichiquan, it is usually light in weight, with a flexible blade. It has cutting edges on both sides, as well as a sharp tip for stabbing motions. At the base of the handle is a metal pommel that is used to strike backwards.
Introduced to China as a result of the Mongol invasions, the broadsword with its characteristic curved blade became the most widely used short weapon in military circles. Its popularity was such that it eclipsed the older straight sword (Shaolin Kung Fu) as the dominant military sidearm.
The broadsword is single-edged and heavy. The strength of the weapon means that cutting movements tend to be large, expansive and powerful. In appearance, using the broadsword is "like splitting a mountain".
When the routine is performed well, the martial roots of the spear form become obvious. Few movements are done slowly. The overall tempo is forceful, direct and rapid, with an unpredictability liked to thunder and lighting. Utilizing numerous explosive releases of power or fajing, the form takes just two minutes or so to complete, despite its length. Within Chinese wushu circles, the spear considered to be Kung Fu Suit an advanced weapon. This is reflected in it being recognized as the "King of weapons".